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As we approach the 100th anniversary of America’s entry into World War I, April 6, 1917, TSLAC Conservation has worked with several WWI items.  The two WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918) are part of the collection at the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center in Liberty, TX.  These halftone lithographic prints on machine-made, clay-coated paper appear to have been commercially produced with customizable text to honor a departed loved one.  The posters had significant tears previously repaired with pressure-sensitive tape.  During treatment, the tape was removed mechanically and with heat.  The acrylic-based adhesive was further reduced with a crepe eraser.  The exposed tears were then mended with thin strips of Japanese tissue and reversible wheat starch paste.  Light inpainting conceals abrasion at the tear site.

One of the WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918,) after treatment.  The center circle was likely left blank for attachment of a photograph.

One of the WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918,) after treatment. The center circle was likely left blank for attachment of a photograph.

Reducing adhesive from pressure-sensitive tape.

Reducing adhesive from pressure-sensitive tape.

Further preparation has taken place as part of TSLAC’s exhibit Texans Take to the Trenches: The Lone Star State and the Great War, opening April 3, 2017.  “A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917) is an oversize broadside declaring America’s entry into the war.  Measuring 61 x 47 cm, the broadside features black, red, and metallic gold ink on machine-made paper.  The primary challenge for this item was to support it during vertical display.  To achieve this, the item was fully encapsulated in archival plastic.  Stabilizer bars of acid-free, corrugated board were then attached at the head and tail of the packet.  The item will hang from nylon monofilament attached to the stabilizer bar.  Encapsulation is a fully reversible, archives-safe process that seals a plastic packet around a document on all sides.  It differs from lamination, a non-archival and often irreversible process, in which plastic is melted into a document.

“A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917,) encapsulated for exhibit.

“A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917,) encapsulated for exhibit.

Detail.

Detail.

The public is invited to TSLAC’s exhibit opening event on April 6, 2017.  The event will feature the reading of messages and stories from WWI soldiers and their families.  For more information: https://www.tsl.texas.gov/news/2017/trenches

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The phase box is a standard conservation housing that provides physical and environmental protection. In June, TSLAC Conservation modified a phase box to approximate an original protective structure.

House Documents v.112, 58th Congress, 2nd Session, 1903-04 is a collection of soil maps published by the US Government Printing Office (GPO.) Rather than bind the maps into an atlas structure, GPO chose instead to box them as loose, folded leaves. Unique care was then taken to make the box look like a book:

House Documents v 112, 58th Congress, 2nd Session, 1903-1904

The box’s outer wrapper was covered in brown sheep leather. Spine labels are consistent with the look of GPO bindings.

House Documents v 112, 58th Congress, 2nd Session, 1903-1904

The box’s inner wrapper featured textile hinges and a printed map list.

It seems likely that this unusual structure originally protected the folded maps on its top and bottom, but these components are now missing. The back, covered board is missing, as well.

These maps receive relatively light patron use, so it was acceptable to leave them folded and boxed rather than flattened in a folder. Though the quickest treatment would be simply creating a new box, a bit of extra planning and time allowed preservation of the original housing’s careful aesthetic design.

First, a new inner wrapper was constructed of lightweight cardstock. The list of maps was lifted from the original inner wrapper and adhered in the same position in the new structure. Then, an outer phase box was constructed and the covering boards adhered. A new back board was made and covered in toned Japanese tissue.

House Documents v 112, 58th Congress, 2nd Session, 1903-1904

Existing and new boards are adhered to the flattened phase box. Here, the replacement board has not yet been toned to match the leather.

The result is a more robustly protective structure that retains the look and labeling of the original. This box better protects the maps inside and retains its unusual, carefully-designed appearance.

House Documents v 112, 58th Congress, 2nd Session, 1903-1904

New phase box with covering boards.

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In keeping with the State of Texas’ plan to have state government agencies adopt the texas.gov domain name, the Texas State Library and Archives Commission (TSLAC) now has a new website address. Please update your Internet bookmarks to: www.tsl.texas.gov.

This URL is the root of a vast array of agency content on the web, from general information about TSLAC (e.g., About Us) to targeted information for the public (Explore Our Resources), for libraries and educators (Continuing Education and Consulting), for state and local governments (Records Management Services), and more.

Advancing our mission to safeguard significant resources, provide information services that inspire and support research, education and reading, and enhance the capacity for achievement of current and future generations, we invite the public to connect with us online at our new website address. Our online resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

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In August, the seven-member Texas State Library and Archives Commission selected Mark Smith for the position of Director and Librarian, the agency’s chief executive also known as the Texas State Librarian. Though Mr. Smith’s tenure begins November 1, we reached out to him recently with 10 questions that address his background, perspective, priorities, and even his knowledge of Texas history. We look forward to getting to know more about Mr. Smith in the months and years to come.

Read the full interview on our website at https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/news/2013/get-to-know-mark-smith.

Questions about the interview?  Contact Cesar Garza, Communications Officer, at cgarza@tsl.state.tx.us or 512-463-5514.

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This week, a delegation of archivists from the Shandong (China) Provincial Archives visited the lab as part of a broader TSLAC tour.  In the lab, the archivists viewed Texas historical documents and several examples of typical book and paper treatments.  Working through a translator added new complexity to a brief discussion of reattaching spine coverings and deacidifying paper.  We hope this group enjoyed their visit, and we appreciated their international perspective.

Shandong (China) Provincial Archives Tour

Shandong (China) Provincial Archives Tour Group

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A brief diversion today, from paper conservation into printmaking and its descendents.

Those with an interest in graphic arts may realize that the ways of producing images are as varied as the ways of interpreting them.  One historical method of creating book illustrations and fine art prints is engraving.  In an engraving, an artist uses a fine, sharp stylus to carve tiny lines into a metal plate.  To print the image, ink is spread into the carved lines and the plate is tightly squeezed onto paper, leaving a positive image of the carved-out areas on the plate.  It’s often said that sculptors make excellent printmakers because of the sculptural process of creating the printing plate.

Engraving
This engraved image shows how fine lines rendered in ink allow control over grayscale.
Engraving Detail
Detail from the above engraving.

Today, I want to share an ingenious adaptation of engraving in the photographic world, in which light (or shadow) replaces ink.  During Paris’ artistically rich interwar period, Russian / French engraver Alexandre Alexeieff and his American partner / wife Claire Parker invented an image production device called the pinboard.  The pinboard consisted of a fine mesh pulled taut on a vertical square frame.  Tiny metal pins were inserted in the interstices of the mesh, creating a dense surface of 100 pins per square centimeter (that’s right, one fragile pin per millimeter.)  Light was then cast across the front of the mesh at an oblique angle.  As each pin was pushed through the front of the mesh, it cast a shadow whose length could be controlled by the length of the exposed pin.  One pin’s shadow created a mark equivalent to one engraved line.  Just like in engraving, the size and density of the resulting lines allowed for detailed control over grayscale.  A pair of artists working on both sides of the pinboard could use a variety of tools to sculpt their desired image into the dense cluster of pins, which Alexeieff described as velvet-like.  A photograph taken of the resulting pinboard image would yield results much like an engraved print.

Alexeieff and Parker took their process a step farther by taking multiple, successive exposures of pinboard images to create pinboard animations.  Their work was painstaking and deeply detailed; the first animation lasted eight minutes and took two years to create.  Only six full pinboard animations were created in their lifetime, bookended by settings of the music of Modest Mussorgsky; their first in 1933 to the symphonic poem Night on Bald Mountain, and their last in 1972 & 1980, to the first half of Pictures at an Exhibition. 

Below is an excerpt from Alexeieff and Parker’s 1963 adaptation of Gogol’s The Nose (from Facets Video.)  Note that the work looks like an animated engraving.  Note also that each line in each still image was generated by the shadow of one tiny pin.

Alexeieff and Parker’s pinboard is a fascinating interpretation of print concepts in the photographic world, and an example of how image production methods evolve incrementally over time.  I stumbled across this amazing work by way of a chance DVD rental, a testament to the value of browsing your local library or video store rather than relying solely on the recommendations of your favorite online provider.

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One interesting component of our Confederate muster roll collection is a record of the wages of Confederate soldiers.  A range of wages seems to have been available within each regiment: $11 per month for a private, $20 per month for a first sergeant, and a few intermediate salaries for lesser sergeants and corporals.

Right now, I happen to be reading Life on the Mississippi, Mark Twain’s fond remembrance of his years piloting steamboats just before the Civil War.  That conflict was a death knell for the steamboating era, which was already in decline due to the technological advances of railways and tugboats.  Twain records vastly different salaries in the pre-war years: steamboat pilots made a minimum of $100 per month.  After labor organized, a few made up to $700 per month.

As an exercise, let’s equate the professional level of a Confederate Army first sergeant and a steamboat pilot.  (Respect for authority aside, perhaps these men were not completely different – both were trained specialists and mid-level professionals responsible for many people during defined tours.)  We can note that the sergeant in 1863 made anywhere from five to 35 times less than the steamboat pilot in 1860.

Hardly an auspicious beginning for a Gilded Age.

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