As we approach the 100th anniversary of America’s entry into World War I, April 6, 1917, TSLAC Conservation has worked with several WWI items. The two WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918) are part of the collection at the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center in Liberty, TX. These halftone lithographic prints on machine-made, clay-coated paper appear to have been commercially produced with customizable text to honor a departed loved one. The posters had significant tears previously repaired with pressure-sensitive tape. During treatment, the tape was removed mechanically and with heat. The acrylic-based adhesive was further reduced with a crepe eraser. The exposed tears were then mended with thin strips of Japanese tissue and reversible wheat starch paste. Light inpainting conceals abrasion at the tear site.
One of the WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918,) after treatment. The center circle was likely left blank for attachment of a photograph.
Reducing adhesive from pressure-sensitive tape.
Further preparation has taken place as part of TSLAC’s exhibit Texans Take to the Trenches: The Lone Star State and the Great War, opening April 3, 2017. “A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917) is an oversize broadside declaring America’s entry into the war. Measuring 61 x 47 cm, the broadside features black, red, and metallic gold ink on machine-made paper. The primary challenge for this item was to support it during vertical display. To achieve this, the item was fully encapsulated in archival plastic. Stabilizer bars of acid-free, corrugated board were then attached at the head and tail of the packet. The item will hang from nylon monofilament attached to the stabilizer bar. Encapsulation is a fully reversible, archives-safe process that seals a plastic packet around a document on all sides. It differs from lamination, a non-archival and often irreversible process, in which plastic is melted into a document.
“A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917,) encapsulated for exhibit.
The public is invited to TSLAC’s exhibit opening event on April 6, 2017. The event will feature the reading of messages and stories from WWI soldiers and their families. For more information: https://www.tsl.texas.gov/news/2017/trenches
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TSLAC Conservation recently performed treatment on an 1825 travelogue, The Modern Traveler: a Popular Description, Geographical, Historical, and Topographical of the Various Countries of the Globe: Mexico and Guatemala, by Josiah Conder. The small volume (15 x 9.5 cm) was initially selected for a short-term exhibit and then for more thorough treatment.
Volume with fold-out map.
The volume was an appealing exhibit item given its small, fold-out map of Mexico. Unfortunately, both the map and the front board of the volume were detached. Due to the informal and short-term nature of the initial exhibit, condition issues were initially addressed by creating a temporary support from archival matboard for the open front cover and map.
Volume with reattached board.
After the exhibit, a more permanent solution was sought. The detached map and adjoining leaf were re-hinged into the volume with Japanese tissue. The front board was then reattached with Japanese tissue toned to match the covering leather. This volume is now stable for patron use and for storage in the stacks.
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TSLAC’s upcoming exhibit, Wish You Were Here, opening April 4, highlights Texas travel and tourism with a spotlight on TSLAC’s postcard and photograph collections. Exhibit preparation takes place in the Conservation Lab. Among other tasks, exhibit preparation can involve making cradles and mounts, matting, and devising custom display devices.
This San Antonio travel brochure is being prepared for flat display in a special exhibit case with interactive drawers. The brochure is mounted to thick card with non-adhesive, archival plastic corners. In order to keep the item from sliding in the drawer, small magnets are attached to the back of the card. These magnets anchor the item to the magnetized drawer to maintain stability throughout the exhibit.
Travel brochure mounted to stiff card with archival plastic corners.
This Texas Panhandle postcard requires a custom display ramp. The ramp is constructed of acid-free, lignin-free corrugated board chosen for its light weight and strength. The display ramp is sized to accommodate a second postcard during the latter part of the exhibit in order to minimize light damage on both items. Postcards are secured to the ramp with thin strips of non-adhesive, archival plastic.
Building custom ramp for postcard.
Postcard mounted to ramp.
Some items require more extensive preparation work. These three postcard books are being matted for display in a large exhibit frame. The frame allows viewing from both the front and back, so the postcard books must be carefully fitted with two matching mats. Reversible hinges made of thin Japanese tissue hold the postcard books flat and vertical.
Cutting a mat template.
Testing fit of mat template with postcard books.
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In preparation for our upcoming exhibit of treasured Texas icons, TSLAC Conservation completed treatment on the Travis Bible. This 1823 Bible may have been with Commander William Travis during the siege on the Alamo. At some past time, the Travis Bible sustained significant water damage, which caused its pages to swell. Major components of the outer binding had broken to accommodate the extra thickness of the paper.
One treatment goal was to stabilize the Bible’s spine and broken hinges with new leather. This process requires significant preparation, as the repair leather must first be dyed, burnished, and pared to match the binding. The leather was then shaped to the spine and adhered under the original leather on the boards, or covers. Stylistic elements of the headcaps and joints were fashioned according to typical 19th century binding aesthetics. Finally, the original spine covering was re-adhered.
Dyeing repair leather
A second goal was to stabilize eight silked leaves. Silking is a previous preservation strategy that reinforced fragile paper with a thin silk lining. Today, we know that silk’s acidity hastens paper’s degradation, and modern conservators instead work with pH-neutral Japanese tissue. During this treatment, the silk was removed and the leaves were mended with tissue as needed. However, three leaves of hand-written family history were especially brittle. Their ongoing use in the binding risked further chipping and loss. These leaves were removed, washed, desilked, deacidified, and housed in window mats. A custom enclosure was then created for the Bible and its removed components.
Silked leaves removed from binding
De-silked leaf in window mat
The Travis Bible and other treasures will be on exhibit beginning January 27. Travis’ famous “Victory or Death” letter from the Alamo joins the exhibit February 23. A few before and after images summarize the Bible’s conservation treatment:
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In preparation for our exhibit, “Texas Moves Toward Statehood: Stories Behind the Mural,” TSLAC Conservation conducted treatment on a small notebook belonging to German immigrant and Fredericksburg founder John O. Meusebach. This notebook is displayed along with several other Meusebach artifacts, including his famous 1847 Comanche peace treaty.
Meusebach notebook before treatment
Meusebach’s notebook, just 5 ½ x 3 ¾ x ½ inches, features leather-trimmed, shaped wooden boards with a gold-tooled leather spine piece. Boards are hand-illustrated with German verse and drawings relevant to Texas. Gold-tooled leather loops at the boards’ front edge hold a small pencil; when the pencil is inserted, the volume is fastened shut. Inside, the boards are lined with cream-colored silk. Silk pockets inside each board are further lined with bright, turquoise-colored paper. The notebook itself is separate from the boards, sewn into a flexible cover of cream-colored silk, turquoise paper, and gold foil decorative strips.
Meusebach notebook components: case (boards), notebook, and stylus (pencil.)
The outer case had been previously repaired with pressure-sensitive tape along the inside and outside of its spine, with tape adhered to both leather and silk. During treatment, tape and adhesive were mechanically removed from the leather, revealing losses in the spine and the full detachment of the front board. Tape removal from the degraded silk was more problematic, especially because much of the silk was baggy and loose across the spine region. Working with a heated spatula allowed partial success. Toned Japanese tissue was then adhered to support and fill the remaining silk.
The next step was to reattach the front board and fill the revealed spine losses with toned tissue. This step required some testing and adjustment of tissue placement and adhesives, since the small, ornately decorated notebook allowed very small adhesive surfaces.
Notebook after treatment
You can see the resulting notebook on display in “Texas Moves Toward Statehood: Stories Behind the Mural.” The Texas State Library and Archives is now open on the second Saturday of every month from 9 AM to 4 PM.
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In addition to displaying Texas Governor John Connally’s suit, TSLAC’s exhibit “Texas Investigates: The Assassination of John F. Kennedy and Wounding of Governor John B. Connally” highlights archival records of the Kennedy assassination, which took place 50 years ago this November. Among these holdings is a teleprint from United Press International (UPI), the first news wire service that reported the assassination story as it developed on November 22, 1963.
In a time before personal computers and the internet, UPI transmitted news bulletins across wires to Teletype machines, which continuously printed updates on a paper scroll. Publishers and broadcasters could then communicate the news to their audiences. On November 22, 1963, UPI teleprinters rattled frantically, and the events of the day unfurled on long sheets of canary yellow paper in newsrooms across the country. Numerous misspellings and factual corrections emphasize the haste and intensity of the moment. Walter Cronkite’s famous on-air announcement of Kennedy’s death was based on a UPI teleprint just like the one in TSLAC’s exhibit.
UPI teleprint from November 22, 1963.
TSLAC’s teleprint is over seven feet long and folded into eight panels for flat storage. The document is fully digitized in our online exhibit (1, 2, 3, 4), but the physical teleprint itself also tells a powerful story. Accordingly, TSLAC conservator Sarah Norris designed and built a custom exhibit cradle to display the physical object and safely maximize its visual impact.
UPI teleprint on zig-zag exhibit cradle.
To support this unique item, the exhibit cradle has a zig-zag shape that conforms to the teleprint’s exact measurements and contours. The cradle is built from archival, acid-free corrugated board, whose lightweight strength allows an overall cradle height of 31 inches. A five-inch-tall model illustrated construction details, including ideal angle measurements for internal supports. Light monitoring is periodically conducted to ensure that the paper’s yellow dye is not adversely affected by exhibit conditions.
As exhibited, the teleprint encourages visitors to consider past communication technologies and to appreciate the impact of physical archival objects. Visitors can imagine themselves standing before the Teletype machine in a busy newsroom as events unfolded on November 22, 1963. Along with Governor Connally’s suit, the teleprint helps convey the immediacy and urgency of the day.
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For several months, TSLAC Conservation has been preparing for TSLAC’s upcoming exhibit, “Texas Investigates: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy and Wounding of Governor John B. Connally.” This exhibit will commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, TX. The exhibit’s centerpiece, on display for the first time since 1964, is the suit worn by Texas Governor John Connally in the Kennedy motorcade. Connally was non-fatally wounded by gunfire that day, and his suit bears silent testimony to the tragic event.
Careful support and cushioning are required in the display of historical clothing so that fragile garments are not damaged by their own weight. In July, conservator Sarah Norris began the process of customizing the dress forms on which the Connally suit and shirt will be displayed. Shoulder supports and stomach padding were created to fit the exact measurements of the clothing. Arm and leg supports were also added. Though the shoulder supports are highly structured, the arm supports are very pliable so that the figure can be dressed with minimal stress to the garment. A slick, spun polyester fabric allows the shirt to slip easily over the arm supports and onto the customized dress form.
Dress forms before and during customization. All supports are made with archival materials and sewn by hand to fit the measurements of the shirt and suit.
The French cuffs on Governor Connally’s shirt posed a special challenge. These cuffs must be exhibited folded in the manner they were worn to allow logical display of the bullet holes in that region. Cufflinks were originally used to maintain this fold, but the Governor’s cufflinks were not included when the suit was donated to TSLAC. To solve this problem, Norris constructed two small stays made of linen thread, museum board, and cotton muslin. The stays function like the original cufflinks, but their color and texture blends with the shirt without drawing visual attention to non-original items.
The small size and neutral cotton fabric of the cuff stays allow them to blend sympathetically with the shirt.
“Texas Investigates: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy and Wounding of Governor John B. Connally” opens October 22. In addition to the Connally suit, the exhibit will spotlight Texas state investigations of the assassination, including those conducted by the Attorney General’s Office and the Department of Public Safety. TSLAC Conservation welcomes the opportunity to prepare these meaningful items for public observation and commemoration.
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