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Posts Tagged ‘exhibit’

Exhibits create a conservation workflow beyond traditional treatment.  Exhibit work can include item preparation and installation, as well as broader preservation issues, such as management of light exposure, temperature, and relative humidity.  A recent exhibit extension required TSLAC Conservation to reevaluate total light exposure for the items on display.  Because light exposure is cumulative and irreversible, light is carefully monitored during exhibition to balance public access with preservation issues.

Photographs are especially sensitive to light damage, and different types of photo materials can tolerate different amounts of light.  We typically reference a standard set of guidelines from the National Park Service to evaluate acceptable gallery limits.  During our recent exhibit extension, we found that several photographs in our brightest display cases would be endangered by excessive light exposure.  We replaced these photographs with high quality reproductions for the remainder of the display period in order to preserve the originals.

A TSLAC archivist installs a photo reproduction to limit light exposure for the original photo.

A TSLAC archivist installs a photo reproduction to limit light exposure for the original photo.

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In September, TSLAC Conservation worked on the Map Showing the Beaumont – Sour Lake – Saratoga Oil Fields of Texas (nd) from the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center in Liberty, TX.  This 60 cm x 45.5 cm map features printer’s ink on machine-made, wove paper.  Adhesive staining, tears, and losses presented challenges for its upcoming exhibit.

Map before treatment

Map before treatment

Map after treatment

Map after treatment

A sticker-style label attached to the back of the map had caused pronounced staining on the front, upper right corner.  Solvent testing revealed that a mixture of acetone, toluene, and xylene was most effective on the stain, likely indicating an acrylic-based adhesive.  Successive poultices of the solvent mixture with Fuller’s earth provided some stain reduction, but better results were achieved by rolling with a solvent-dampened swab.  Care was taken in applying the solvent mixture over a ball-point pen annotation that was revealed beneath the removed label.  This ink proved surprisingly stable in the solvent mixture.

Adhesive staining and ball-point pen ink were revealed beneath the removed label.

Adhesive staining and ball-point pen ink were revealed beneath the removed label.

The map was washed and deacidified on wet blotter to reduce overall staining and localized tidelines.  Fills were constructed of handmade, Ruscombe Mill paper toned with water-thinned acrylic paint.  Fills were cut to shape, pared along their edges for a smooth seam, and adhered with wheat starch paste.  Extensive edge tears were then mended with NARA heat-set tissue.

Toned, shaped fills await final trimming.

Toned, shaped fills await final trimming.

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Recently TSLAC Conservation has been diversifying our paper mending capabilities with heat-set and remoistenable tissues.  These tissues can offer several advantages, including decreased working time and lessened exposure to water.  Such advantages are key as we prepare many items for the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center’s redesigned exhibit space, opening later this year.

A particularly useful heat-set tissue recipe comes from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA.)  The recipe, presented at the 2015 meeting of the American Institute for Conservation, features an adhesive blend of acrylic Avanse and Plextol products mixed with water.  The adhesive can be cast on various weights of tissue, dried, and quickly applied with a tacking iron.  The tissue is reversible in ethanol and requires no water for use.  It is ideal for manuscripts with iron gall ink that are not otherwise undergoing aqueous treatment.  For these documents, minimizing water exposure minimizes the risk that damaging iron ions will migrate through the paper, thus requiring more intensive intervention.

Applying heat-set tissue with a tacking iron to a manuscript with iron gall ink.

Applying heat-set tissue with a tacking iron to a manuscript with iron gall ink.

Though mending with wheat starch paste is still the preferred standard, we have found the NARA heat-set tissue to be a useful alternative for specific applications.  NARA artificial aging tests indicated that optical brighteners in Avanse do not migrate into mended documents.  However, we will remain alert for future testing on this issue, as well as others relevant to the long-term behavior of acrylic-based adhesives in paper mending.

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As we approach the 100th anniversary of America’s entry into World War I, April 6, 1917, TSLAC Conservation has worked with several WWI items.  The two WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918) are part of the collection at the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center in Liberty, TX.  These halftone lithographic prints on machine-made, clay-coated paper appear to have been commercially produced with customizable text to honor a departed loved one.  The posters had significant tears previously repaired with pressure-sensitive tape.  During treatment, the tape was removed mechanically and with heat.  The acrylic-based adhesive was further reduced with a crepe eraser.  The exposed tears were then mended with thin strips of Japanese tissue and reversible wheat starch paste.  Light inpainting conceals abrasion at the tear site.

One of the WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918,) after treatment.  The center circle was likely left blank for attachment of a photograph.

One of the WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918,) after treatment. The center circle was likely left blank for attachment of a photograph.

Reducing adhesive from pressure-sensitive tape.

Reducing adhesive from pressure-sensitive tape.

Further preparation has taken place as part of TSLAC’s exhibit Texans Take to the Trenches: The Lone Star State and the Great War, opening April 3, 2017.  “A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917) is an oversize broadside declaring America’s entry into the war.  Measuring 61 x 47 cm, the broadside features black, red, and metallic gold ink on machine-made paper.  The primary challenge for this item was to support it during vertical display.  To achieve this, the item was fully encapsulated in archival plastic.  Stabilizer bars of acid-free, corrugated board were then attached at the head and tail of the packet.  The item will hang from nylon monofilament attached to the stabilizer bar.  Encapsulation is a fully reversible, archives-safe process that seals a plastic packet around a document on all sides.  It differs from lamination, a non-archival and often irreversible process, in which plastic is melted into a document.

“A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917,) encapsulated for exhibit.

“A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917,) encapsulated for exhibit.

Detail.

Detail.

The public is invited to TSLAC’s exhibit opening event on April 6, 2017.  The event will feature the reading of messages and stories from WWI soldiers and their families.  For more information: https://www.tsl.texas.gov/news/2017/trenches

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TSLAC Conservation recently performed treatment on an 1825 travelogue, The Modern Traveler: a Popular Description, Geographical, Historical, and Topographical of the Various Countries of the Globe: Mexico and Guatemala, by Josiah Conder.  The small volume (15 x 9.5 cm) was initially selected for a short-term exhibit and then for more thorough treatment.

Volume with fold-out map.

Volume with fold-out map.

The volume was an appealing exhibit item given its small, fold-out map of Mexico.  Unfortunately, both the map and the front board of the volume were detached.  Due to the informal and short-term nature of the initial exhibit, condition issues were initially addressed by creating a temporary support from archival matboard for the open front cover and map.

Volume with reattached board.

Volume with reattached board.

After the exhibit, a more permanent solution was sought.  The detached map and adjoining leaf were re-hinged into the volume with Japanese tissue.  The front board was then reattached with Japanese tissue toned to match the covering leather.  This volume is now stable for patron use and for storage in the stacks.

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TSLAC’s upcoming exhibit, Wish You Were Here, opening April 4, highlights Texas travel and tourism with a spotlight on TSLAC’s postcard and photograph collections.  Exhibit preparation takes place in the Conservation Lab. Among other tasks, exhibit preparation can involve making cradles and mounts, matting, and devising custom display devices.

This San Antonio travel brochure is being prepared for flat display in a special exhibit case with interactive drawers. The brochure is mounted to thick card with non-adhesive, archival plastic corners. In order to keep the item from sliding in the drawer, small magnets are attached to the back of the card. These magnets anchor the item to the magnetized drawer to maintain stability throughout the exhibit.

Travel brochure mounted to stiff card with archival plastic corners.

Travel brochure mounted to stiff card with archival plastic corners.

This Texas Panhandle postcard requires a custom display ramp. The ramp is constructed of acid-free, lignin-free corrugated board chosen for its light weight and strength. The display ramp is sized to accommodate a second postcard during the latter part of the exhibit in order to minimize light damage on both items. Postcards are secured to the ramp with thin strips of non-adhesive, archival plastic.

Building custom ramp for postcard.

Building custom ramp for postcard.

Postcard mounted to ramp.

Postcard mounted to ramp.

Some items require more extensive preparation work. These three postcard books are being matted for display in a large exhibit frame. The frame allows viewing from both the front and back, so the postcard books must be carefully fitted with two matching mats. Reversible hinges made of thin Japanese tissue hold the postcard books flat and vertical.

Cutting a mat template.

Cutting a mat template.

Testing fit of mat template with postcard books.

Testing fit of mat template with postcard books.

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In preparation for our upcoming exhibit of treasured Texas icons, TSLAC Conservation completed treatment on the Travis Bible. This 1823 Bible may have been with Commander William Travis during the siege on the Alamo. At some past time, the Travis Bible sustained significant water damage, which caused its pages to swell. Major components of the outer binding had broken to accommodate the extra thickness of the paper.

One treatment goal was to stabilize the Bible’s spine and broken hinges with new leather. This process requires significant preparation, as the repair leather must first be dyed, burnished, and pared to match the binding. The leather was then shaped to the spine and adhered under the original leather on the boards, or covers. Stylistic elements of the headcaps and joints were fashioned according to typical 19th century binding aesthetics. Finally, the original spine covering was re-adhered.

Travis Bible

Dyeing repair leather

Travis Bible

Reattaching boards

A second goal was to stabilize eight silked leaves. Silking is a previous preservation strategy that reinforced fragile paper with a thin silk lining. Today, we know that silk’s acidity hastens paper’s degradation, and modern conservators instead work with pH-neutral Japanese tissue. During this treatment, the silk was removed and the leaves were mended with tissue as needed. However, three leaves of hand-written family history were especially brittle. Their ongoing use in the binding risked further chipping and loss. These leaves were removed, washed, desilked, deacidified, and housed in window mats. A custom enclosure was then created for the Bible and its removed components.

Travis Bible

Silked leaves removed from binding

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De-silked leaf in window mat

The Travis Bible and other treasures will be on exhibit beginning January 27. Travis’ famous “Victory or Death” letter from the Alamo joins the exhibit February 23. A few before and after images summarize the Bible’s conservation treatment:

Travis Bible

Before

Travis Bible

After

Travis Bible

Before

Travis Bible

After

 

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