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Posts Tagged ‘Texas’

As we approach the 100th anniversary of America’s entry into World War I, April 6, 1917, TSLAC Conservation has worked with several WWI items.  The two WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918) are part of the collection at the Sam Houston Regional Library and Research Center in Liberty, TX.  These halftone lithographic prints on machine-made, clay-coated paper appear to have been commercially produced with customizable text to honor a departed loved one.  The posters had significant tears previously repaired with pressure-sensitive tape.  During treatment, the tape was removed mechanically and with heat.  The acrylic-based adhesive was further reduced with a crepe eraser.  The exposed tears were then mended with thin strips of Japanese tissue and reversible wheat starch paste.  Light inpainting conceals abrasion at the tear site.

One of the WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918,) after treatment.  The center circle was likely left blank for attachment of a photograph.

One of the WWI Memorial Posters for Sgt. James Young (1918,) after treatment. The center circle was likely left blank for attachment of a photograph.

Reducing adhesive from pressure-sensitive tape.

Reducing adhesive from pressure-sensitive tape.

Further preparation has taken place as part of TSLAC’s exhibit Texans Take to the Trenches: The Lone Star State and the Great War, opening April 3, 2017.  “A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917) is an oversize broadside declaring America’s entry into the war.  Measuring 61 x 47 cm, the broadside features black, red, and metallic gold ink on machine-made paper.  The primary challenge for this item was to support it during vertical display.  To achieve this, the item was fully encapsulated in archival plastic.  Stabilizer bars of acid-free, corrugated board were then attached at the head and tail of the packet.  The item will hang from nylon monofilament attached to the stabilizer bar.  Encapsulation is a fully reversible, archives-safe process that seals a plastic packet around a document on all sides.  It differs from lamination, a non-archival and often irreversible process, in which plastic is melted into a document.

“A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917,) encapsulated for exhibit.

“A Message Calling for War with the Imperial German Government” (1917,) encapsulated for exhibit.

Detail.

Detail.

The public is invited to TSLAC’s exhibit opening event on April 6, 2017.  The event will feature the reading of messages and stories from WWI soldiers and their families.  For more information: https://www.tsl.texas.gov/news/2017/trenches

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TSLAC Conservation has recently been working on a collection of 89 19th century Texas Supreme Court dockets.  These volumes document state Supreme Court proceedings and are frequently accessed by staff and patrons. The large number of items requires a blend of collections conservation and single-item treatment strategies.  Prioritizing collections issues has quickly improved access while freeing subsequent time for single-item treatment.

Texas Supreme Court dockets (foreground.)  The yellow color in these photographs comes from ultraviolet filtering in collections storage.

Texas Supreme Court dockets (foreground.) The yellow color in these photographs comes from ultraviolet filtering in collections storage.

First, a preliminary survey was conducted to characterize the oversize ledgers and classify them by severity of condition issues.  Then, collections stabilization procedures were streamlined to take place primarily within collections storage.  Once this is complete, severely damaged items will be targeted for full treatment in the conservation lab.  This workflow has enabled efficient treatment of the greatest number of items and flexible accommodation of other ongoing lab projects.

Portable treatment station in collections storage.

Portable treatment station in collections storage.

The project has presented several challenges.  The time-intensive demands of conservation documentation must be balanced with the pace of work required in a collections-level project.  This highlights the tension between product and process in an archives setting.  Further, efficiency-minded, single-item treatment techniques must be developed for oversize account books. TSLAC Conservation hopes to discuss the project’s challenges, techniques, and successes at the 2017 American Institute of Conservation annual meeting next year.

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This month, TSLAC Conservation highlights our volunteers. With their help, we are preparing 19th century State Supreme Court case files for digitization and improved researcher access.

Legal documents like the case files were typically stored in tri-folded packets and tightly sandwiched into drawers. After many years, the paper strongly retains its folds, making physical access very difficult. A series of grants from the Texas Historical Foundation has enabled TSLAC to address these documents’ physical condition and scan them for digital access.

Thick, folded packets present obstacles to researcher access.

Thick, folded packets present obstacles to researcher access.

TSLAC archivists first humidify and flatten the packets. For many case files, this is all the work that is required. Archivists then earmark any flattened case files in need of conservation treatment. That’s where our conservation volunteers come in.

Anne selects a flattened case file for conservation treatment.

Anne selects a flattened case file for conservation treatment.

Volunteers Anne and Lidia carefully separate case file packets adhered at the top with animal hide glue. They use a methyl cellulose poultice to soften the glue, release the leaves, and remove remaining adhesive. Some packets have two adhered leaves; some have 70! Anne and Lidia also mend badly damaged leaves with Japanese tissue and reversible wheat starch paste. The resulting, stabilized leaves are ready for reading room access and for scanning.

Lidia applies a methyl cellulose poultice to a previously water-damaged case file.

Lidia applies a methyl cellulose poultice to a previously water-damaged case file.

TSLAC thanks our volunteers for their hard work and dedication toward making these documents accessible!

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TSLAC’s upcoming exhibit, Wish You Were Here, opening April 4, highlights Texas travel and tourism with a spotlight on TSLAC’s postcard and photograph collections.  Exhibit preparation takes place in the Conservation Lab. Among other tasks, exhibit preparation can involve making cradles and mounts, matting, and devising custom display devices.

This San Antonio travel brochure is being prepared for flat display in a special exhibit case with interactive drawers. The brochure is mounted to thick card with non-adhesive, archival plastic corners. In order to keep the item from sliding in the drawer, small magnets are attached to the back of the card. These magnets anchor the item to the magnetized drawer to maintain stability throughout the exhibit.

Travel brochure mounted to stiff card with archival plastic corners.

Travel brochure mounted to stiff card with archival plastic corners.

This Texas Panhandle postcard requires a custom display ramp. The ramp is constructed of acid-free, lignin-free corrugated board chosen for its light weight and strength. The display ramp is sized to accommodate a second postcard during the latter part of the exhibit in order to minimize light damage on both items. Postcards are secured to the ramp with thin strips of non-adhesive, archival plastic.

Building custom ramp for postcard.

Building custom ramp for postcard.

Postcard mounted to ramp.

Postcard mounted to ramp.

Some items require more extensive preparation work. These three postcard books are being matted for display in a large exhibit frame. The frame allows viewing from both the front and back, so the postcard books must be carefully fitted with two matching mats. Reversible hinges made of thin Japanese tissue hold the postcard books flat and vertical.

Cutting a mat template.

Cutting a mat template.

Testing fit of mat template with postcard books.

Testing fit of mat template with postcard books.

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Canvas covers protect many oversize ledger bindings in TSLAC’s collection. Like modern paper covers for children’s textbooks, canvas covers were meant to safeguard government records through years of heavy use. Unlike modern paper covers, canvas covers are original to their bindings. They feature leather corners and decorative paper doublures (seen when the book opens) that match the volume.

General Index to Court of Criminal Appeals, 1919-1947 (19 3/4” x 16” x 4”) with damaged canvas cover.

General Index to Court of Criminal Appeals, 1919-1947 (19 3/4” x 16” x 4”) with damaged canvas cover.

Inside the book, the canvas cover is backed with stiff card.  Leather corners, decorative paper, and manufacturer’s labels on the cover match the original binding.

Inside the book, the canvas cover is backed with stiff card. Leather corners, decorative paper, and manufacturer’s labels on the cover match the original binding.

Today, tattered canvas covers present a conservation conundrum. Is the cover simply a disposable protective layer at the end of its useful life? Or is it an inherent part of the binding that should be preserved? Given the abundance of government ledger bindings, can full treatment be justified and time-efficient?

These questions shaped treatment of the General Index to Court of Criminal Appeals, 1919-1947. Frequent use of this 40 lb+ book had left its canvas cover frayed and torn, with large losses at its edges and all along its spine. An ideal treatment would preserve legibility of labeling on the canvas cover and the exposed book’s spine for the use of reading room staff.

A treatment was designed to retain and stabilize the canvas cover. First, losses were filled with toned muslin. In order to achieve reversibility and prevent adhesive strike-through, heat-set tissue was applied beneath the torn edges of the canvas. Shaped, toned muslin patches were then adhered with PVA to bridge canvas losses.

Inserting toned muslin fills beneath canvas backed with heat-set tissue.

Inserting toned muslin fills beneath canvas backed with heat-set tissue.

Repairs to the spine leather were completed with linen-backed toned tissue. Then, the remaining segments of canvas cover were secured to the binding using a modified reback treatment. A reback is a common spine repair method in circulating collections. Since our canvas spine cover was missing, the remaining canvas cover was rebacked to the book’s original spine covering. This involved lifting material in the book’s hinges, adhering the loose canvas on the board’s inner edge with reversible Lascaux, and reattaching the original covering material.

Preparing hinge region to “reback” the remaining canvas cover to the book’s exposed spine covering.

Preparing hinge region to “reback” the remaining canvas cover to the book’s exposed spine covering.

In creating a hybrid structure of canvas cover and original binding, this treatment acknowledges both elements as integral parts of the volume. The treatment is aesthetically tidy, stabilizes the volume for ongoing use, and remains reversible with heat and solvent. The treatment required approximately 10 hours to complete, which is not unrealistic for other, prioritized volumes with similar condition issues.

Future versions of this treatment might revisit the use of heat-set tissue, which may prove to be somewhat too reversible in this application. In place of heat-set, inconspicuous sewing could improve durability while maintaining reversibility and aesthetic compatibility. However, sewing would be complicated by the inability to turn the cover inside out. TSLAC Conservation welcomes thoughts and discussion about this treatment.

Before treatment

Before treatment

After treatment

After treatment

Before treatment

Before treatment

After treatment

After treatment

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In preparation for our upcoming exhibit of treasured Texas icons, TSLAC Conservation completed treatment on the Travis Bible. This 1823 Bible may have been with Commander William Travis during the siege on the Alamo. At some past time, the Travis Bible sustained significant water damage, which caused its pages to swell. Major components of the outer binding had broken to accommodate the extra thickness of the paper.

One treatment goal was to stabilize the Bible’s spine and broken hinges with new leather. This process requires significant preparation, as the repair leather must first be dyed, burnished, and pared to match the binding. The leather was then shaped to the spine and adhered under the original leather on the boards, or covers. Stylistic elements of the headcaps and joints were fashioned according to typical 19th century binding aesthetics. Finally, the original spine covering was re-adhered.

Travis Bible

Dyeing repair leather

Travis Bible

Reattaching boards

A second goal was to stabilize eight silked leaves. Silking is a previous preservation strategy that reinforced fragile paper with a thin silk lining. Today, we know that silk’s acidity hastens paper’s degradation, and modern conservators instead work with pH-neutral Japanese tissue. During this treatment, the silk was removed and the leaves were mended with tissue as needed. However, three leaves of hand-written family history were especially brittle. Their ongoing use in the binding risked further chipping and loss. These leaves were removed, washed, desilked, deacidified, and housed in window mats. A custom enclosure was then created for the Bible and its removed components.

Travis Bible

Silked leaves removed from binding

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De-silked leaf in window mat

The Travis Bible and other treasures will be on exhibit beginning January 27. Travis’ famous “Victory or Death” letter from the Alamo joins the exhibit February 23. A few before and after images summarize the Bible’s conservation treatment:

Travis Bible

Before

Travis Bible

After

Travis Bible

Before

Travis Bible

After

 

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Each spring, the preservation community celebrates Preservation Week and MayDay with special events that promote the preservation of cultural heritage. This May, TSLAC Conservation joins our State and Local Records Management Division in offering a free webinar, “Disaster Recovery and Salvage for Government Records,” on Thursday, May 22, at 10 AM Central Time. View course information at: https://www2.gotomeeting.com/register/353363082

Though the course addresses some specific needs of government records managers, registration is open to all. Basics of physical recovery will be discussed along with legal obligations for state government. Learn about safely drying books, paper, photographs, and electronic media, as well as preparing for hazards such as flood, mold, and insects. Institutional recovery contracting and decision-making will be covered, with a special focus on Texas state and local records. This unique, collaborative course is newly updated from its 2012 debut as part of our 2014 preservation activities.

Insect damage

Insects thrive in warm, moist environments. They can cause extensive damage to record-keeping materials, as seen on the spine of this book.

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